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Expressive communication is the ability to convey a message to another person through sounds, speech, signs, or writing. You can encourage communication development by smiling, talking, playing, and reading with your baby. It will help them develop the communication skills needed to build meaningful relationships and succeed in school. While every child develops at their own pace, our communication chart can serve as a general guide for what to expect in the first three years.

Topics of Development Motor Skills. Tummy Time. Executive Function. This instigates consultative communication from various individuals in the principle of common interest. In the pursuit of knowledge, policy scientists need to be careful in deciphering relevance of particular knowledge given the impact of various knowledge sources that are trying to influence policy decisions. In this regard, informed decisions are drawn from critiquing, careful analysis and recommendations that will be beneficial to many rather than a few individuals. Lasswell 3 [] defines policy sciences as knowledge of the policy process as well as knowledge in this process.

Torgerson [] states that Lasswell proposed the development of policy science-or policy sciences-as an interdisciplinary field to embrace all the social sciences and to produce knowledge applicable to public problems. The term "policy sciences" in its plural form, therefore, emphasizes its interdisciplinary nature Flor, According to Hale , [] the central aim of policy sciences is to resolve problems [in the service of human dignity] and the diverse human, historical, and contextual element in public policy-making.

This is a reiteration of the Lasswellian maxim on public policy in the following key elements: "contextual"; "problem-oriented"; "multi-method inquiry" or diverse empirical methods, "political", "normative, welfare-oriented" in the case of social policy goals; and posing "interdisciplinarity" or moving between humanities and social sciences. Indeed, Lasswell's original goal of the policy sciences was to provide, "intelligence pertinent to the integration of values realized by and embodied by interpersonal relations [such as] human dignity and the realization of human capacities" Lasswell and Kaplan, p.

According to Harold Lasswell , the policy sciences are concerned with the knowledge of and in the decision processes of the public and civic order. At one moment, the analyst regards his subject-matter as an objective phenomenon, but this phase alternates with another in which the analyst comes to view himself as actively involved in the phenomenon which he investigates.

Inquiry displays both tension and interplay between these moments; they are distinct yet interwoven, complementary in the ongoing development and refinement of contextual orientation Togerson, Empirical knowledge pertains to those generated through scientific inquiry and observation as applied to decision processes. As such, the notion of the policy sciences is construed in various shades since it was introduced in the s and over the years, Lasswell and his colleagues refined the concept, through practice and peer review, as the intellectual tools needed to support problem-oriented, contextual, and multi-method inquiry in the service of human dignity for all.

As such, the emphasis of policy sciences is on applying scientific or empirical evidences in understanding problems so that more realistic, responsive and effective interventions are identified and implemented. Since a problem is multidimensional, various scientific disciplines are needed to form a comprehensive analysis of a certain phenomenon.

The trend toward a policy sciences viewpoint is a move away from fragmentation and the fragmented "worm's eye view" of policy matters. But policy sciences are sensitive to the difficulties of achieving "value free sciences" and try to contribute to value choice by exploring value implications, value consistencies, value costs, and the behavioral foundations of value commitments. While the main test of policy sciences is better achievement of considered goals through more effective and efficient policies, policy sciences as such do not deal with discrete policy problems, but do provide improved methods and knowledge for doing so.

Furthermore he mentioned that the main foci of concern for policy sciences include, for example, i policy analysis, which provides heuristic methods for identification of preferable policy alternatives; ii policy strategies, which provide guidelines for postures, assumptions, and main guidelines to be followed by specific policies for example, with respect to incrementalism versus innovation, attitudes to risk and time, comprehensive versus shock policies, and goal-oriented versus capacity oriented policies ; iii evaluation and feedback, including, for instance, social indicators, social experimentation, and organizational learning; and iv improvement of the system for policymaking-by redesign and sometimes nova design designing anew , including changes in input, personnel, structure, equipment, external demands, and so forth.

As defined by Laswell , [] the policy sciences may be conceived as knowledge of the policy process and of the relevance of knowledge in the process.

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Its approach is anticipatory which aims to improve policymaking in order to provide as much lead time as necessary in the solution of societal problems. Therefore, one issue that may arise along the way is how to regard societal problems and issues scientifically. However, according to Lasswell and McDougal , [] while the problems are addressed scientifically, there is also a need for considering the contextual and normative approach to solving problems. The reason is that the knowledge produced is not only universalizable but ethical and empirico-analytical.

Through this, policy science is thought not only problem-oriented but also multidisciplinary and contextual. Generally, the relationship between development communication and the policy sciences can be described as inextricable [] although both fields of study have different concentration, scope, and limitations. Furthermore, both development communication and the policy sciences share the same practice: the need for actively applying knowledge from and principles of the social sciences in solving large-scale societal problems under conditions of social change.

The policy sciences provide an integrated and comprehensive approach for addressing issues and problems at all levels in ways that help clarify and secure the common interest. Policy sciences are concerned with helping people make better decisions toward fostering human dignity for all. Since we are living in a "turbulent field" environment, policy science is necessary to address issues before it will get bigger. The approach of policy sciences, [81] as cited by Flor in his article, is forward-looking or anticipatory.

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Policy sciences tell us what we need to do and prepare before certain issues or problems occur. Using an allegorical definition, Dror , as cited by Ongkiko and Flor , explains that " one should not leave the problem of crossing a river until the river is reached; rather, one should survey the territory in advance, identify rivers flowing through it, decide whether it is at all necessary to cross the river—and if so, where and how to cross it—then prepare in advance the materials for crossing the river and design a logistics network so that the material is ready when the river is reached.

These variables are important factors in coming up with a sound and relevant policy. In the context of communication policy development, the policy sciences are necessary to make more purposeful, responsive, and effective communication policies. Profoundly influenced by Freud and Marx, Lasswell emphasized the importance of the contextual orientation of policy analysts, both individually and collectively Lasswell, When he first articulated this principle of contextuality, Lasswell indeed referred explicitly to the "exposition of the dialectical method" [] in Lukacs's History and Class Consciousness , adding that the insights of psychoanalysis provided a complement to the Marxian dialectic which would aid in understanding "the symbolic aspects of historical development" Laswell, , p.

Here Lasswell proposed a mode of contextual-configurative analysis whereby, through "an act of creative orientation" Laasswell, , p. In this regard, Lasswell considered such contextual orientation indispensable to the conduct of rational inquiry, and urged the use of contextual-configurative analysis in the development of a policy science profession.

Hale , p. All for good reasons: first, no decision can adequately be understood apart from the larger social process in which it is itself apart.

Language and communication development in Down syndrome.

Thus contextuality is a key element in the policy sciences. As a reliance on ideology, principle, and grand historical projects cannot, given the complexity and contextuality of policy problems, serve with reliable solution, a discipline geared to resolve problems should expressly orient itself on those problems and should be purposeful.

Thus problem orientation is the second key element in the policy sciences.

Finally, due to the multidimensionality and complexity of many of these problems it stands to reason that the policy scientist should draw from a diversity of methodologies. Thus methodological diversity is the third key element in the policy sciences. It is Lasswell's sincere belief that understanding the policy formation and decision-making process will eventually also be beneficial in the creation of public policy Hale, Hepp, A.

It combines qualitative interviews on media appropriation, egocentric network maps, and media diaries. Through the triangulation of these methods of data collection, it is possible to gain a differentiated insight into the specific meanings, structures and processes of communication networks across a variety of media. The approach is illustrated using a recent study dealing with the mediatisation of community building among young people.

Since this involves today a variety of different media, the contextual analysis of communication networks necessarily has to imply a cross-media perspective. Oancea, A. Sciences are policy sciences when they clarify the process of policy-making in society or supply data for the making of rational judgments on policy questions" Lasswell The 'art' of policy sciences, therefore, seek to improve decision-making by reinforcing and supporting human dignity to elide the blinders of instrumental reason by addressing the manifold of human experience Hale, The personalities who significantly play vital roles in this field are the policy scientists and analysts who are involved in the scientific design, formulation, analysis, and evaluation of policies in particular and are concerned with the study of the policy-making process in general Flor, Lasswell and McDougal [] called on "policy scientists to aid decision makers in clarifying goals, identifying trends relative to goals, analyzing the factors causing or contributing to specific trends, projecting the future, and inventing and evaluating policy proposals—alternative actions that may be taken related to the desired results.

To guide communication policy-makers in addressing challenges, Picard and Pickard [] proposed policy principles that aim to guide contemporary media and communications policymaking in democratic countries so the contributions of these operations and systems to society may be improved. On the other hand, fundamental principles are constant, thus providing guidance on how to respond to new concerns and challenges and making appropriate policies. Picard and Pickard [] note that "policy principles are coherent statements based on underlying norms and values that help policymakers and organisations respond to issues and take part in legislative and regulatory activities".

In practice, principles are articulated and then used to set policy objectives and determine the means to achieve them. The latter two stages opine Picard and Pickard , are subjected to political processes that determine the final policy outcome.

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MSc Communication for Development

Picard and Pickard [] therefore came up with the following rubric list of potential principles that they believe are crucial in crafting a much reflective communication policy:. Principles are therefore not neutral, because they are normative, reflecting specific values that are subject to contestation. In choosing among policy principles, Picard and Pickard [] assert that policymakers should optimally be concerned about effects of policy on all stakeholders , giving primacy to fundamental communication needs of society and seeking to balance social and economic benefit.

Flor , an expert on Knowledge Management for Development, which discusses the need for convergence in society through inter-cultural communication, using case studies in Malaysia, Indonesia, and the Philippines. It also examines environmental conflicts, indigenous peoples, and the official development assistance in the Philippines.

The quality and degree of societal communication — the mass media and education—determine the ways that cultures are exposed to others. The higher the quality and degree of inter-cultural communication, the lower the propensity for conflict, and vice versa. The concept of convergence looks at the communication process as cyclical between source and receiver, and interactive between their message and feedback.

In others words, there is a major gap between the ways in the development and use of policy process theories and policy analysis tools. A new policy sciences updates the language of the old to focus more on choice and contexts and embrace applied and basic science in conducting policy analysis and policy process research. The new policy sciences highlights 1.

Further, given the changing landscape and the multitude of choices facing people engaged in the policy process, single-shot solutions will not work. The best way to structure the policy sciences is to direct the basic and applied science towards realistic depictions of choice in complex contexts.

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One cannot make people more rational, but one can establish choices from a mix of rationality and irrationality to help people adapt accordingly. The biggest contribution of the new policy sciences is to encourage critical thinking.