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This book is aimed at professionals from industry, academicians engaged in extraction engineering or natural product chemistry research, and graduate level students. The individual chapters complement one another, were written by respected international researchers and recognized professionals from the industry, and address the latest efforts in the field.

It is also the first sourcebook to focus on the rapid developments in this field. Skip to main content Skip to table of contents. Advertisement Hide. Allicin and other degradation products from alliin also give garlic its characteristic flavor. Supercritical fluids SCFs often prove to be efficient solvents with better transport properties diffusivity, mass transfer coefficient, penetration ability than most common organic solvents in the liquid state Brunner, When using carbon dioxide CO 2 in particular, a high selectivity for valuable microconstituents in natural products and a complete separation of solvent traces from the extract and treated matrix can be achieved del Valle and Aguilera, A further quality advantage for oxidation-prone substances is that these are exposed to neither oxygen nor high temperatures during treatment with supercritical CO 2 SC-CO 2 , in contrast to conventional separation methods.

There have been some reports in the scientific literature on the SC-CO 2 extraction of allium species, and although many of these correspond to analytical applications for garlic Calvey et al. There were no compositional differences between extracts of an homogenate of fresh garlic in water using CO 2 and organic solvents Calvey et al. Sinha et al. Extraction conditions for onion powder have been optimized in laboratory and pilot plant studies Sass-Kiss et al.

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Sulfur content also increased with process temperature in experiments carried out at bar. Process conditions had no effect on volatile oil content. The objectives of this work were to study the effect of process temperature and pressure on yield and quality of garlic with SC-CO 2 , and to compare these "premium" extracts with conventional products. Dehydrated garlic flakes from Inversiones Rauco Ltda. Tyler, Mentor, OH. Fresh garlic purchased in a local market was also used as a substrate. Finally, commercial garlic capsules from Centrum Whitehall-Robins Healthcare, Madison, WI , which were claimed to contain mg garlic powder and mg alliin, were used as the reference product.

In this case, however, the mL extraction vessel was equipped with a heating jacket and temperature was controlled by recirculation of heated water through a thermally equilibrated bath, instead of by placing the extractor in a thermally equilibrated forced-air oven.

Extraction of Phytoconstituents

Some preliminary experiments were carried out to select the extraction time and the particle size. Most experiments were not replicated. Conventional extraction of a 2kg sample was carried out with 12L of azeotropic ethanol in a large, Soxhlet-type pilot plant apparatus Quickfit and Quarz Ltd. For this purpose, the four fractions corresponding to each SC-CO 2 extraction experiment were pooled together and filtered through Durapore PVDF microfiltration membranes with 0. Separation was carried out in a Symmetry RP18 column 4. The organic phase was dried using analytic-grade anhydride sodium sulphate, filtered, rotary-evaporated to dryness at room temperature under vacuum, and redissolved with the mobile phase for HPLC analysis.

Table of Contents: Alternative solvents for natural products extraction /

The extraction yield of garlic flakes was 5. Sass-Kiss et al. Although onion and garlic both belong to the genus allium, they are not of the same species. Furthermore, variety differences within species are common, which may justify the large differences in yield. Another factor that may have affected differences in yield between garlic and onion is sample pretreatment. In our work there was a problem of agglomeration of milled garlic flakes during large-scale extraction, which were not reported for the extraction of onion powder by Sass-Kiss et al. As a result of agglomeration in a packed bed, the specific surface for extraction diminishes and the diffusion path within the solid matrix increases, creating mass transfer limitations to yield.

The extraction yield of garlic flakes with SC-CO 2 changed with sample particle size and process temperature, pressure, and time. The extract is obtained by mixing fine grated fresh garlic with kieselguhr probably to avoid agglomeration problems prior to extraction with SC-CO 2 undisclosed extraction conditions www. Another preliminary experiment indicated a limited increase of 9. Figure 1 shows the effect of extraction temperature on integral extraction yield of garlic oleoresin as a function of process time. Table 1 shows researchers noted that oil extraction performed with d-limonene resulted in higher yields than those extracted by n-hexane and those extraction yields increase with time.

This may be due to the greater triglycerides solubility in d-limonene and to the d-limonene higher boiling point compared to n-hexane, as higher temperatures facilitate extraction 5. It may also be due to the decrease of both d-limonene and oil viscosities at high temperature s, which increase the rate of diffusion of the solute from the solid phase to the solvent.

Another feature possibly involved for this result is the slightly polar nature of d-limonene when compared to n-hexane 16 , The results of this study were similar to those found by Mamidipally and Liu 16 , Liu and Mamidipally 17 and Virot et al. Table 2 shows that researchers noted for almond oil, that palmitic C , oleic C and linoleic C acids, represent These results were consistent with those found in the previous studies 19 , 20 , which were between For peanut oil, palmitic C , oleic C and linoleic C acids represent These results confirm those reported in the previous studies 12 , 21 - 23 , which were between For corn oil, palmitic C , oleic C and linoleic C acids represent These results were comparable to those found in the previous studies 11 , 12 , 22 - 24 , which were between For walnut oil, palmitic C , oleic C and linoleic C and linolenic C acids represent These results were consistent with those found in the previous studies 20 , 25 - 27 , which were between For cashews oil, palmitic C , stearic C , oleic C and linoleic C acids represent These results were consistent with the results of several studies that have found values between For hazelnut oil, palmitic C , stearic C , oleic C and linoleic C acids represent These results were consistent with several studies 20 , 24 , 27 , 30 that have found values between For olive oil, palmitic acid C , oleic C and linoleic C acids represent These results were consistent with the literature, being valued between These rates vary depending on the treatment received, the extraction method pressure, solvent and solvent nature and cultivar 7 , 18 , 23 , 31 - It also appears from the olive pomace oil, that the palmitic C , oleic C and linoleic C acids represent These results were consistent with other studies they found a range between These results are very interesting insofar as they imply that d-limonene is potentially interesting in the field of extraction of vegetable oils and makes it possible to generalize its use in this field.

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Several studies have found interesting solutions, Liu and Mamidipally 17 proposed a power-saving technology represented by a membrane separation. Virot et al. These can make the use of d-limonene as an extraction solvent of vegetable oils an attractive alternative to n-hexane. In terms of this study, it is clear from the obtained results that the extraction ability of vegetable oils by d-limonene has been verified.

The extraction with d-limonene as solvent gave a higher yield compared to that of n-hexane. The d-limonene did not alter the fatty acid profile and composition of extracted oils. It can be considered as a new solvent for the extraction of vegetable oils. Ali, Q. Ashraf, Exogenously applied glycinebetaine enhances seed and seed oil quality of maize Zea mays L. Krichene, K. Methenni, A. Taamalli, I. Daoud and M. Zarrouk, Characterization of virgin olive oil from super intensive Spanish and Greek varieties grown in northern Tunisia. Prasad, H. Khoo, N. Abdul-Aziz, A.

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