Gynoecium Pistil composed of two to five connate median antepetalous carpels gynophore present in Humbertia.
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Ovary superior, usually unilocular or bilocular rarely trilocular or quinquelocular; in Dichondra and Falkia deeply bilobate or quadrilobate, with lobes fused at base of bifid gynobasic style; in Mina with secondary septa. Style single or stylodia two to five , usually more or less connate in Cuscuta simple or two free; style sometimes, e. Stigma capitate, punctate, filiform or lobate rarely peltate, truncate, infundibuliform etc. Pistillodium absent. Ovules Placentation usually subbasal to basal in Humbertia axile.
Ovules one or two to four; in Humbertia numerous per carpel, usually anatropous, ascending, apotropous, unitegmic, tenuinucellar reduced tenuinucellar, with meiocyte semi-inferior to weakly crassinucellar in Cuscuta incompletely tenuinucellar. Integument usually 9—20 in Cuscuta 15—17 cell layers thick. Placental obturator often present. Parietal tissue one or two cell layers thick. Megagametophyte usually monosporous, Polygonum type in Cuscuta usually disporous, octacellular, Allium type. Endosperm development ab initio nuclear. Endosperm haustoria? Embryogenesis usually caryophyllad in Cuscuta sometimes solanad.
Fruit Usually a loculicidal capsule or a pyxidium sometimes irregularly dehiscing; rarely a nut or, e. Testa usually multiplicative not in Cuscuta , with complex anatomy. Outer three cell integument layers specially differentiated. Exotesta often with papillae or hairs, somewhat thickened. Outer hypodermis consisting of small cells, little thickened. Inner hypodermis consisting one or more palisade layers. Inner hypodermal cells often elongate, thickened, or somewhat elongate. Inner layers two to eight, consisting of sclereidal cells. Endosperm copious, often chartaceous, oily.
Embryo usually large, straight or curved, with chlorophyll in Cuscuta filiform, spirally coiled, poorly differentiated. Suspensor haustorium present. Cotyledons two, often plicate or coiled, bifid almost absent in Cuscuta. DNA Deletion of 6—15 bp present in plastid gene atp B. Deletion of bp present in plastid gene trn F. Plastid gene rpl 2 intron lost.
Plastid gene ndh F pseudogene in Cuscuta and probably in many other Convolvulaceae. Plastid inverted repeat reduced by 7 kb in Cuscuta reflexa : hence genes rpl 2, rpl 23, trn I, region homologous to Nicotiana ORF, and one rps 12 intron lost. Plastid gene ycf 15 lost. Plastid gene inf A lost Convolvulus.
Mitochondrial cox I intron present Ipomoea.
Die Natürlichen Pflanzenfamilien
Phytochemistry Flavonols kaempferol, quercetin , flavonol glycosides, flavones, O -methyl flavonols, O -methyl flavones, cyanidin in Cuscuta , acylated anthocyanins, coumarins, caffeic acid esters, ornithin-derived tropane alkaloids polyhydroxy nortropanes, e. Ellagic acid and tannins not found. Some secondary metabolites are synthesized by endophytic fungi or bacteria in, e. Use Ornamental plants, starch source Ipomoea batatas , vegetables Ipomoea aquatica , forage plants, medicinal plants.
Systematics Convolvulaceae are sister-group to Solanaceae. Humbertia is sister to the remaining Convolvulaceae. Humbertioideae Roberty in Candollea Oct Humbertia 1; H. Wood with scent similar to sandalwood. Vascular bundles collateral. Secondary lateral growth normal. Wood rays uniseriate, homocellular, with exclusively procumbent cells.egitimhaberlerim.com/wp-includes/274/
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Usually with latex cells only in flowers or with articulated laticifers. Petiole vascular bundle transection annular.
Flowers solitary, axillary, strongly obliquely zygomorphic. Sepals with five traces. Nectariferous disc absent. Filaments curved in bud, adnate to corolla base epipetalous.
Anthers basifixed. Gynophore present. Style clavate. Placentation axile. Ovules numerous per carpel.
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Fruit a few-seeded drupe. Endosperm copious.
SOLANALES Dumortier Main Tree, Synapomorphies
Ornithin-derived tropane alkaloids absent. Convolvuloideae Burnett, Outl. Austin in S. Austin et R. Olmstead in Syst. Cordisepalum 2; C. Erycibe 67; tropical Asia to Japan and tropical Australia. Don, Gen. Dichondra 14; tropical and subtropical regions on both hemispheres , Falkia 3; F. Clarke in J. Hooker, Fl. India 4: Jun Iles Canaries 3 2,3 : Apr Dicranostyles 15; tropical America , Maripa 20; tropical and subtropical America, with their highest diversity in northern South America , Lysiostyles 1; L.
Jacquemontia 80—; tropical and subtropical regions on both hemispheres, with their largest diversity in the Neotropics. Cuscuta c ; almost cosmopolitan.