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After entering this into the OCR platform the selected text is found and then recorded in a digital format like a PDF. The moment the user has finished configuring their OCR settings they have an automated solution for creating digital copies of physical documents. The accuracy of OCR is dependent on the quality of the original document. The rate of accuracy is problematic as small mistakes can result in the loss of important data points. For example if you record an invoice that omits or incorrectly records the name or price, that document is as good as useless.

AI solutions can do this automatically while pulling insights from the text. In other words, they can process document content more thoroughly. OCR tools are undergoing a quiet revolution as ambitious software providers combine them with AI. As a consequence, data capturing software is simultaneously capturing information and comprehending the content. In practice this means that AI tools can check for mistakes independent of a human-user providing streamlined fault management. But how do these tools work? The tool was used to copy financial reports from various languages and translate them into English.

To do this, Infrrd used a combination of machine learning and Computer Vision algorithms. These algorithms were used to analyse document layout during pre-processing to pinpoint what information was to be recorded. An OCR engine was then used to extract text from the scanned document. The documents were then translated with the help of a Deep Neural Network using live data to ensure accuracy. Without the help of AI, such reports would need to be managed by individual employees and checked by a translator.

Extraction and recognition of artificial text in multimedia documents. Wang K, Belongie S. Word spotting in the wild. Jain A K, Yu B.

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Automatic text location in images and video frames. Robust text detection in natural images with edge-enhanced maximally stable extremal regions. Robust text detection in natural scene images. Robust face recognition via sparse representation. Elad M, Aharon M. Image denoising via sparse and redundant representations over learned dictionaries. Text detection in images using sparse representation with discriminative dictionaries.

A laplacian approach to multioriented text detection in video.

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Liu Y X, Ikenaga T. A contour-based robust algorithm for text detection in color images.

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Dalal N, Triggs B. Histograms of oriented gradients for human detection. Conditional random fields: probabilistic models for segmenting and labeling sequence data. Automatic acquisition of context-based images templates for degraded character recognition in scene images. Zhou J, Lopresti D. Extracting text from www images. Ocr for world wide web images.

AI and OCR: How optical character recognition is being revitalised

Character recognition in natural images. Smith R.

Limits on the application of frequency-based language models to Ocr. Robust wide-baseline stereo from maximally stable extremal regions. Weighted finite-state transducers in speech recognition.

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Label embedding for text recognition. Text localization in real-world images using efficiently pruned exhaustive search. Scene text localization and recognition with oriented stroke detection. Handwritten digit recognition with a back-propagation network. Learning hierarchical features for scene labeling. Deepface: closing the gap to human-level performance in face verification. Rich feature hierarchies for accurate object detection and semantic segmentation. Deeply-supervised nets. Text detection and character recognition in scene images with unsupervised feature learning.

End-to-end text recognition with convolutional neural networks. Object reading: text recognition for object recognition. Google Goggles. ICDAR robust reading competitions. ICDAR robust reading competition challenge 2: reading text in scene images. ICDAR robust reading competition.

In: Proceedings of Document Analysis and Recognition. NEOCR: a configurable dataset for natural image text recognition. Camera-Based Document Analysis and Recognition. Scene text extraction with edge constraint and text collinearity link. Emotion however played no role in this line of research. In more recent work, chatbots and chit-chat dialogue have become more prominent, in part due to the use of distributed such as embedding representations that do not readily support logical inference. On conversational setting, K. These works are crucial as we surmise an instrumental role of ERC in emotion-aware a. As ERC is a new research field, outlining research challenges, available datasets, and benchmarks can potentially aid future research on ERC.

In this paper, we aim to serve this purpose by discussing various factors that contribute to the emotion dynamics in a conversation. We surmise that this paper will not only help the researchers to better understand the challenges and recent works on ERC but also show possible future research directions. The rest of the paper is organized as follows: Section II presents the key research challenges; Section III and IV cover the datasets and recent progress in this field; finally Section V concludes the paper.

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Recent works on ERC, e. Emotion is defined using two type of models — categorical and dimensional. Categorical model classifies emotion into a fixed number of discrete categories. In contrast, dimensional model describes emotion as a point in a continuous multi-dimensional space. On the other hand, Ekman [ 3 ] concludes six basic emotions — anger, disgust, fear, happiness, sadness and surprise.

Valence represents the degree of emotional positivity, and arousal represents the intensity of the emotion. In contrast with the categorical models, dimensional models map emotion into a continuous spectrum rather than hard categories. This enables easy and intuitive comparison of two emotional states using vector operations, whereas comparison is non-trivial for categorical models. As there are multiple categorization and dimensional taxonomies available, it is challenging to select one particular model for annotation.

Choosing a simple categorization model e.

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Complex emotion models also increase the risk of obtaining a lower inter-annotator agreement. Each emotional utterance in the EmoContext dataset is labeled with one of the following emotions: happiness, sadness and anger. The majority of the utterances in EmoContext do not elicit any of these three emotions and are annotated with an extra label: others. Naturally, the inter-annotator agreement for the EmoContext dataset is higher due to its simplistic emotion taxonomy.

However, the short context length and simple emotion taxonomy make ERC on this dataset less challenging. Annotation with emotion labels is challenging as the label depends on the annotators perspective. Self-assessment by the interlocutors in a conversation is arguably the best way to annotate utterances. However, in practice it is unfeasible as real-time tagging of unscripted conversations will impact the conversation flow.

Post-conversation self-annotation could be an option, but it has not been done yet. The annotators are given the context of the utterances as prior knowledge for accurate annotation. The annotators also need to be aware of the interlocutors perspective for situation-aware annotation. The annotators should be aware of the nature of association between the speaker and Lehman Brothers for accurate labeling.

Context is at the core of the NLP research.